If you are new to Linux, you might find it quite hard to navigate around. Where do I install software? Where are the configuration stored? What can I safely delete? Many of these questions can be answered by knowing what goes where. On that end, I've produced a sort of roadmap, so you can navigate through the basic Linux filesystem.
It is based on Linux Filesystem Hierarchy, which you can refer to for further details. It is available as a PNG file.
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High Quality (281kB)